Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services



Student life

Running head: Student Life: …Student Health Services


Student Life: A Brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services

Eric D. Stoller

CSSA
Oregon State University


I. Introduction

The lives of students Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services in American higher education have been influenced by a number of services and support systems. Whether consciously or unconsciously, most students have been affected by these services. This paper will фокус on a particular Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services support system, specifically, the student health service.

Founded in 1636, Harvard College became the first institution of higher learning in America. Several aspects of student learning and student life were created at Harvard Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services. One aspect of student life which was implemented at Harvard was the first student health program (Patrick, 1992). The earliest health programs revolved around a student’s physical education and hygiene.

Hygiene Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services was introduced into the curricula and European models of physical fitness were also incorporated (Patrick, 1992). Over time, health replaced hygiene as the overriding term for the overall well-being of an Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services individual. Institutions soon realized that a student health service was necessary in maintaining a healthy student.

The current role of the student health service is a mixture of clinical and educational services Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services. Today, college health practitioners provide services ranging from immunizations, general health check-ups, acupuncture, health education presentations, and informational web sites. According to Komives, Woodard, and Associates, “The primary purpose of student Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services health services is to provide immediate medical assistance to students who are ill or injured; student health services also encourage individual good health and provide leadership in promoting the concept of a healthy Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services campus” (2003, p. 349). The importance of health to college students has been cited in several publications (as cited in Benjamin and Robinson, 1998).


^ II. History of Student Health Services

The American Colonists

Students attending the Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services first few institutions of higher learning in America had to deal with a myriad of health issues. Early on, students and the peoples of the colonies struggled with “hunger and malnutrition, scurvy, and Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services infectious diseases, including small pox, cholera, measles, diphtheria, and typhoid fever” (Novick and Mays, 2001, p. 11). During this time, because of the close quarters of residential students, epidemics of infectious diseases (e Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services.g., typhoid) routinely plagued college and university campuses (Christmas, 1995). Students who were ill were excluded from enrolling (Turner and Hurley, 2002). These epidemics left their mark on a developing country. For example, the Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services national capital in Philadelphia had to be moved due to a yellow fever epidemic (Turnock, 2001).

In the early 19th century, new approaches for dealing with “infirmities” were being developed (Turner and Hurley, 2002). These Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services approaches were highly clinical in nature and were the precursors of preventive measures and hygiene programs. Thomas Jefferson, as Rector of the University of Virginia, reported in the minutes of the Board Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services of Visitors, April 7, 1826:

…There shall be established in the University a Dispensary which shall be attached to the Medical School, and shall be under the sole direction and government of the Professor of Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services Medecine who shall attend personally at the Anatomical theatre, or such other place as he shall notify, from half after one to two o’clock, on every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday, for Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services the purpose of dispensing medical advise, vaccination, and aid in Surgical cases of ordinary occurrence, to applicants needing them.

All Poor, free, persons, disordered in body, topically or generally, and applying for Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services advise, shall receive it gratis; all others, bond or free, shall receive it on the payment of half a Dollar at each attendance, for the use of the institution, and all Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services persons shall be vaccinated gratis, and the Students particularly shall be encouraged to be so, as a protection to the institution against the malady of the small pox (as cited in Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services Turner and Hurley, p. 1, 2002).

This plan would фокус mainly on the immunization of students. According to Olson and Autio (1999), “the early health centers, mirroring the health care system of the times, were mainly Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services infirmaries for sick students” (p. 1). The next step in the development of student health services would be the initiation of hygiene and physical education programs.


^ History of Hygiene

Health in American higher education Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services was originally known as hygiene (Christmas and Dorman, 1996). Hygiene originated from the name of the Greek goddess of health, Hygeia (Christmas and Dorman, 1996). Numerous books on hygiene have been written. The Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services earliest known literature regarding hygiene was penned by Galen in 180 AD. Galen stated that “the goal of hygiene, therefore, must be to maintain the normal equilibrium of humours and qualities by Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services prescribing a correct amount of food, drink, sleep, wakefulness, sexual activity, exercise, and massage” (Christmas and Dorman, 1996).

The holistic concept of hygiene came from Europe in the early 19th century. According to Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services Christmas and Dorman (1996), a focused hygiene movement originated in Germany under the leadership of Max von Pettenkofer. Also at that time, significant discoveries were мейд in determining that typhoid fever and cholera were waterborne diseases Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services. These discoveries and Pettenkofer’s experimental analysis of hygiene paved the way for the holistic principles which would eventually lead to the adoption of a hygiene movement in the United States (Christmas Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services and Dorman, 1996).

Hygiene arrived in the United States with the immigrants who came from Europe (Christmas and Dorman, 1996). Hygiene and health were fast becoming a priority for the citizens of America. The Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services first public health service in the United States began with the Merchant Marine Hospital Service in 1798 (Hayden, 2000). Between 1815 and 1818, local health departments opened in several cities (Hayden, 2000). In 1837, Horace Mann, the Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education campaigned for mandatory programs of hygiene instruction in schools (Hayden, 2000).


^ Physical Education and Hygiene in Higher Education in the 1800’s

Several factors contributed to the adoption Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services of physical education and hygiene programs in institutions of higher education. Programs developed with activities both in and out of the classroom. According to Patrick (1992), “there was an effort to import the Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services mens sana in corpore sano [a sound mind in a healthy body] model of fitness from European higher education with instruction in physical activity and gymnastics” (p. 504). At Harvard Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services, administrators were concerned with the “sedentary existence” of their students (Turner and Hurley, 2002, p. 2). It was thought that exercise was the best way to improve students’ health (Turner and Hurley, 2002). By 1825, Harvard had adopted Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services methods of physical education from universities in Germany and Scandinavia (Turner and Hurley, 2002). Harvard, Dartmouth, Williams, Yale, and Amherst established the first college gymnastics programs (Patrick, 1992). An example of a physical Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services education and hygiene program could be found at Amherst’s Barrett Gymnasium. It housed the Department of Hygiene and Physical Education. The department was established in 1860 in an attempt to combat student Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services ill health (A History of Amherst College, 2003). The history of Amerherst states that they were the first college (1859-1860) to introduce physical education and hygiene into the curriculum (A History of Amherst College Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services, 2003). However, Harvard had instituted practical health classes in 1818 (Sloane and Sloane, 1986). Perhaps it is better stated that Harvard brought hygiene into the classroom while Amherst instituted the first student health service (Turner and Hurley Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services, 2002).

In some instances, hygiene was presented to students with elements of religiosity. Harvard implemented courses in hygiene which were “for the purpose of illustrating and bolstering the course in natural theology Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services” and “to furnish knowledge wherewith to construct an argument for the existence and attributes of God” (as cited in Patrick, 1992, p. 504). At Williams College in 1851 the first topic of instruction was health Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services and mental education (Patrick, 1992). That same year at the City College of New York, a hygiene course was offered which focused on an individual’s daily life rather than a specific vocational Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services topic (Patrick, 1992).


^ The Role of Amherst College

Although Harvard is consistently cited as being the first college to introduce hygiene into the curricula, it would be the administrators at Amherst College who would be Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services responsible for many innovations in hygiene education.

An early promoter of hygiene, Reverend Dr. Edward Hitchcock was president of Amherst College from 1845 to 1854. President Hitchcock started the first college physical education program Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services in the United States at Amherst in 1830 (Christmas and Dorman, 1996). He wrote about the diet, physical regimen, and employment of the Amherst student. Hitchcock was concerned with retention issues at Amherst Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services. He expressed “concern over the wasted effort represented by a student’s dropping out of college before the completion of his academic requirements” (as cited in Christmas and Dorman, 1996).

The next Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services president of Amherst College, William A. Stearns, was also a champion for student hygiene. In 1856, President Stearns stated:

The breaking down of the health of students, especially in the spring of the year Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services, which is exceedingly common, involving the necessity of leaving college in many instances and crippling the energies and destroying the prospects of not a few who remain, is, in my opinion, wholly unnecessary Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services, if proper measures could be taken to prevent it (as cited in Turner and Hurley, p. 2, 2002).

Stearns classified healthcare as a need for a student, much the same as was the education Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services that a college setting could provide (Christmas, 1995).

President Stearns and Reverend Dr. Hitchcock had an impact on the future of hygiene and health in higher education in America, but it would Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services be Hitchcock’s son, Dr. Edward Hitchcock, who would be given the title, “Father of American College Health” (Turner and Hurley, p. 3, 2002).

Dr. Edward Hitchcock, director of physical education at Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services Amerherst College, is credited as being the first person to establish a formal college health program (The American College Health Association: A Brief History, 2001). In 1861, Hitchcock “created a health and physical education program that Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services attempted to fill what he saw as the college’s role in combating the failing health of nineteenth century students” (Sloane and Sloane, 1986, p. 271). According to Sloane and Sloane (1986), Hitchcock was Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services the creator of health education and the role of the health educator. Hitchcock’s programs focused on educating students “of the need for a nutritious diet and against the dangers of drinking and smoking Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services” and “offered information on reproductive health…” (Sloane and Sloane, 1986, p. 271) Hitchcock offered a new, holistic approach which focused on a student’s well being (Christmas and Dorman, 1996). Hitchcock developed physical Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services fitness classes, standardized student health records, created courses on health and hygiene, and instituted comprehensive individual student medical care (Sloane and Sloane, 1986). The “Amherst system” became the model college hygiene program (Christmas Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services and Dorman, 1996).


^ Women’s Colleges: Parallels in Programming

In 1861, the same year that Hitchcock was creating his student health service, administrators at Mount Holyoke appointed a physician-in-residence (Patrick, 1992). Wellesley hired a Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services “lady physician” who looked after the “general care of the health of students” (Turner and Hurley, 2002, p. 3). According to Patrick (1992), in 1865, Vasser College may have had the first comprehensive student health service Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services. The service included: a physician, a medical infirmary, a nurse, a consultation office, and an office for the promotion of health and well-being of students (Patrick, 1992).


^ Hygiene and Health in Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services Higher Education in the early 1900’s

In the early 1900’s, colleges and universities found that they needed health practitioners to care for their athletes (Crihfield, 1995). This led to the creation of health services Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services in conjunction with the athletic and physical education departments. In 1901, The University of California established the first comprehensive student health service (Turner and Hurley, 2002).

World War I influenced the creation of student health services Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services due to a record number of “physically ineligible draftees” (Sloane and Sloane, p. 272, 1986). Universities began health inspections of new students “to detect defects that could be attended to while the young people were Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services in college. This enabled students who otherwise might drop out to stay in school” (Crihfield, 1995). “At Harvard and Yale in the early 1900s, students could receive common nursing care Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services from the infirmaries for roughly $1.50 per day; however, students who required special care had to hire their own nurses or doctors” (as cited in DuVernois, p. 18, 2001).

This does not mean that the adoption of Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services hygiene practices was without difficulties. In 1927 a report on the status of higher education hygiene programs was published (National conference on health in colleges, 1947). It was stated that, “higher educational institutions are not Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services solidly or even largely behind common scientific objectives in educational hygiene” (National conference on health in colleges, 1947).


Finances

In 1932, William Hughes wrote a guide for student health professionals, entitled, “The Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services Administration of Health and Physical Education for Men in Colleges and Universities.” Hughes developed a model for a student health service and included information on the financial aspects of student health (1932). According Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services to Hughes, student health services should be funded by general university funds and from student fees (1932). The budgetary needs of a student health program were simple in that the funding primarily provided Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services for staff salaries and supply costs. However, early administrators had to be fiscally responsible with their budgets. According to Weaver and Frederick, if student fees monies were not able to cover the costs of Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services student health programming, it was “usually advisable for the college to make suitable appropriations from general college funds to maintain the health service program” (1947, p. 38). Insurance provided some students with health Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services care but historically, “well recognized values are associated with health serviced practice and teaching which are impossible to duplicate through the usual insurance programs” (Weaver and Frederick, 1947, p. 38).


^ The American College Health Association

“In Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services 1920, interest developed in forming a national organization after college health programs had developed on numerous campuses throughout the country” (The American College Health Association: A Brief History, 2001). Thus, an association Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services dedicated to the field of college health was formed. It was called the American Student Health Association (ASHA). The first ASHA Annual Meeting took place in Chicago on December 31, 1920 (Christmas and Dorman, 1996).The participants Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services came from a variety of health related fields, including: student health, university health, hygiene, and physical education (Christmas and Dorman, 1996). At a meeting in 1931, minimum standards for college health services were created Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services (Patrick, 1992). In 1948, the association name was changed to the American College Health Association (ACHA).


^ III. Student Health Services: Present Day

College health programs have evolved considerably since the early 1800’s. Issues Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services that affect today’s university or college student include: tobacco use, alcohol and other drugs, sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, contraception, infectious illness, eating disorders, and vaccine-preventable diseases (Turner and Hurley, 2002). The Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services health issues which affect students’ success are often attributed to behavior (Miller et al., 2003). Emphasis is placed on health education and promotion. (Miller et al., 2003). Additionally, student health services of today collaborate Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services with the greater academic community in which they reside (Patrick, 1992).


^ Accreditation and Certification

Accreditation and certification are an important part of today’s student health service. Although it is expensive and time consuming, student health Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services services can benefit immensely if they are accredited (Turner and Hurley, 2002). Accreditation can provide evidence that a student health service is providing a quality service that comparable to other student health services (Turner Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services and Hurley, 2002).

Health educators are increasingly becoming Certified Health Education Specialists (CHES). According to the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing, the CHES is an indication of professional competency Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services and commitment
to continued professional development (2002). 80% of all colleges and universities in the United States have “some organized arrangement for advancing [student] health” (Miller et al., 2003, p. 83). The principal associations for student health services are Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services the American College Health Association and the American Public Health Association.


^ Virtual Services

The student health services office of today extends far beyond its “brick and mortar” walls. The Internet has Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services increased the reach of student health services and in some cases; the online presence is more familiar than the real office. Such is the case for Columbia University’s Go Ask Alice! service. Go Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services Ask Alice! is an online health question and answer service. This web-based service has existed since 1993 (Go Ask Alice!). “Go Ask Alice! receives nearly 2,000 questions weekly from college and high Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services school students, parents, teachers, professionals, older adults, and others, on every conceivable health topic” (Go Ask Alice!). Universities across the nation have adopted this method of information exchange. In fact Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services, a Гугл search of the education Internet domain yields over one hundred “health questions and answers” web sites.

Another technology which has enabled student health service administrators to communicate nationally has been the listserve. The Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services SHS Listserve, created at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville, has over 1,600 members (Turner and Hurley, 2002). The listserve has become a major source of information, discussion, and debate on college health issues in Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services the United States and the world (Turner and Hurley, 2002).


^ Financing Today’s Health Service

The economic climate in which college health programs exist is one that is filled with uncertainty Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services and opportunity. Funding sources are no longer limited to university general funds and student fee revenues. Grant funded programs can now supplement or increase overall service offerings (Turner and Hurley, 2002). College health programs can have Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services multi-million dollar budgets especially when health education services are incorporated into “multi-specialty clinics” which offer services to “students, faculty, staff, spouses, dependents, and in some cases, the general public Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services” (Turner and Hurley, 2002, p. 43). Forced to eliminate student health service offerings, some institutions have begun to outsource clinical services (Turner and Hurley, 2002).


^ Present Day Competencies: Assessment and Evaluation

Assessment and evaluation are extremely important Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services to practitioners in student health services. Turner and Hurley state that the evaluation of student health services should include the following questions: “How many students are utilizing the services? Are Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services students satisfied with the services received? Are the program objectives being accomplished? Are the objectives being accomplished in the most cost-efficient manner?” (2002, p. 65). According to Hayden, college health programs should Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services “plan on assessment”, “carry out evaluation of plans”, “interpret results of program evaluation”, and “infer implications from findings for future program planning” (2000, p. 7).


^ Present Day Competencies: Teaching and Learning

College health educators are by default Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services, teachers. They teach a specialized topic which can have a major impact on student success (Damush, Hays, and DiMatteo, 1997).

According to Miller et al., a college health program “must provide evidence of its Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services impact on the achievement of student learning and development outcomes” (2003, p. 86). Furthermore, a college health program and its practitioners “must be based on theories and knowledge of learning and human development” (Miller Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services et al., 2003, p. 87). According to the International Association of Student Affairs and Services Professionals (IASASP), college health programs should provide “information on health issues specifically involving the college age student, e.g Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services., sexually transmitted diseases, stress, diet, depression” (2001, p.41).


^ IV. The Future of Student Health Services

In 1998 the college health education Competency Update Project (CUP) was started by the National Commission for Health Education Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services Credentialing. The project will have an impact on the “professional preparation, certification, and professional development” of college health practitioners (NCHEC - About NCHEC - CUP, 2002).

The future of student health services revolves around the Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services students who they so diligently serve. With nontraditional students outnumbering their traditional 18-21 year-old counterparts, college health practitioners have to look to new ways to serve this changing population. The Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services hours of operation of a student health service can impact student usage. According to Grace (1997), it is “not uncommon for students to delay treatment of acute respiratory and gastrointestinal infections until an opportune time in Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services their class schedule; then they request immediate access to healthcare” (p. 243). Having extended hours can allow students to utilize services at their convenience.

Student health services are constantly evolving and changing with Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services the needs and requirements of the students that they serve.


^ V. Conclusions, implications for further study, remaining questions

Student health services continue to impact students’ lives. The concepts of hygiene and physical education Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services which were transplanted from Europe are still prevalent in college health. Student health services are responsible for students’ health and well-being, while recreation departments have adopted physical education programs.

Fortunately, the Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services epidemics of the past are no longer present in the college landscape of today. Alcohol and other drugs and sexual education are highly publicized issues affecting colleges today. Fortunately Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services, student health service practitioners are prepared to combat these issues with tactics including: social norms marketing and educational workshops.

A relatively un-researched aspect of student life which could affect the student Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services health service is the onset of distance education. How do “e-learners” access student health services? What happens when a question and answer does not solve a problem? How will these students get Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services student health services which compare to their traditional on-campus counterparts? The answers to these questions will undoubtedly have an impact on the “look and feel” of the student health service.

In 1937, it Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services was stated at the National Conference on College Hygiene that constantly changing information, a lack of interest from students, and resistance to change provided health educators with a challenging teaching assignment Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services. This statement still rings true today. Student health services continue to adapt to new information and are constantly challenged to provide a myriad of services to the colleges and universities that they Student Life: a brief Glimpse of the Past, Present, and Future of College & University Student Health Services serve.

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